Monad is the codename for Microsoft’s new command shell that is currently in beta. Monad was coined by Gottfried Leibniz, a German philosopher, mathemetican and statesman from the 17th century. One of his philosophical works was called Monadology. Here’s a brief excerpt that demonstrates the tie-in with MSH:
This describes the MSH approach of creating fine grained cmdlets that can be composited to perform complex and powerful tasks. You can read more about Monadology here.